South, West and Wales AHRC Doctoral Training Partnerships open day

Special Collections and Archives recently attended a recruitment event for students intending to apply for a South, West and Wales AHRC Doctoral Training Partnership (DTP) studentship. These grants fund PhD theses which are  supervised by two Higher Education institutions within the partnership. This consortium approach allows students to draw on the academic expertise and unique and distinctive research collections of two Universities, widening possibilities for interdisciplinary and inter-institutional collaboration and discovery.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAcademics and research support staff from all partner institutions (Aberystwyth, Bath, Bath Spa, Bristol, Cardiff, Exeter, Reading and Southampton) gathered at the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff to meet with prospective students and discuss their requirements.

Our Special Collections and Archives stand was very busy, as applicants sought information on research collections covering a broad range of subjects. We received enquiries on Anglo-Welsh writers; folklore; the history of sport; Jane Austen; Restoration drama, archaeology; literary archives; Indian history; the history of genetics; male witches; interwar women’s history; medical history; Catholicism and martyrdom; philosophy; King Arthur; superstition and the occult; Gothic serialised literature; William Caxton; and 20th century charities.

Best of luck to all applicants – we look forward to working with you!

The John Ashburner collection

Earlier this year we completed the cataloguing of the Drama Collection; material within it ranges from 1598 to 1927, and out of the 900 items there are about 400 which can be considered Restoration drama.  Within this collection 53 are known to have formerly belonged to John Ashburner, a 19th century physician and spiritualist.

The fifty three items from the Ashburner collection range in date from 1713 to 1784, a range of about seventy years, although about half of the books date from either 1735 (15 items) or 1736 (10 items).  The authors represented in this collection are typical of the period, as reprints of earlier Restoration playwrights, with examples from John Banks (1650-1706), Colley Cibber (1671-1757), George Farquhar (1677-1707), Nathaniel Lee (1653-1692), Thomas Otway (1652-1685), Thomas Shadwell (1642-1692) and John Vanbrugh (1664-1726), amongst others.

Ashburner books 008The Ashburner books are identifiable by his bookplate which is a nineteenth century armorial bookplate; the design harkens back to previous centuries rather than the more plain examples common for this period.  At the top of the design is an Ash tree on a wreath of twisted cloth – this is the Ashburner crest; on the plain shield we find the family coat of arms, which includes 3 crescents and 3 mullets on one side, and a lion rampant with three hands on the other.  Above the shield is a knight’s helmet, and the shield has foliage above it.  Also included on a scroll at the bottom is the family motto: Quicquid crescit, in cinere perit which means Whatever grows, perishes in ashes.

Ashburner books 009Of the 53 volumes containing the bookplate there are only seven items which bear any other provenance information, aside from the later Public Library bookplate.  The signatures on these books include the names Mary Wright (Jan 18 1764), Frances Salmon, Catherine Cotton, Ann Harris, and [?]Roger 175[?].

Ashburner books 014c

It is possible to make the assumption, at least with the two cases that bear dates, or partial dates, that these signatures belong to owners prior to John Ashburner.  Two names appear twice, those of Frances Salmon and Catherine Cotton; it has not been possible to discover any information about any of these individuals named.

The signature of Frances Salmon also appears on two other volumes in the Restoration Drama collection which don’t contain the Ashburner bookplate. However, these volumes match the other items in the Ashburner collection in size and in style of binding – half bound in leather with marbled paper covered boards.  They are both on plays by George Farquhar, The beaux stratagem (1733) and The constant couple (1735), and the leather on the binding matches the colour used for other Farquhar volumes which do bear the Ashburner bookplate.  It is reasonable to assume that there are a number of other volumes in the Drama collection which although not bearing the Ashburner bookplate did belong to his collection.

Ashburner books 024a

John Archibald Ashburner was born in Bombay (Mumbai) in 1793, where his father was a member of the Supreme Court, under the Privy Council of India. He was educated in England, and studied medicine at Dublin, Glasgow and Edinburgh, where he graduated as a doctor of medicine in 1816.

At some point he married Elizabeth Grey-Farquhar and they had a child in 1818; this was the same year that he was appointed as physician to the Small-pox hospital in London.  He held this position until 1824 when he left for duties in India.  When he returned to Britain he became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and a physician to Queen Charlotte’s Lying In Hospital, London and a lecturer of Midwifery and the Diseases of Women and Children at St. Thomas’ Hospital.[1]

He died in London in 1878 at the age of 85, and his wife died the following year.

Ashburner was a physician and physicist, but also an author and a spiritualist who was acquainted with Madame Helena Blavatsky and Mrs Hayden.[2] He wrote Notes and studies in the philosophy of animal magnetism and spiritualism (1867) and was the translator of K. L. von Reichenbach’s Physico-physiological researches in the dynamics of magnetism, electricity, heat, light, crystallization and chemism in their relation to vital force (1853). He also contributed to a variety of spiritualist publications such as the Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, was a member of the Charing Cross Spirit Power Circle, and was on the committee of the Mesmeric Infirmary.[3]

As an intelligent and educated man, it is not surprising he had such a collection of dramatic works, although they appear not to directly correspond to the interests he was known for.

The Ashburner collection comprises approximately 5% of the Drama Collection, and is somewhat larger than the bookplates give evidence for.  It is an interesting snap-shot of drama from the mid 18th century, although it was acquired about a century after it was published by Ashburner.  All the volumes are bound in a distinctive style to bring a cohesive look in the owner’s library.  The majority are single plays, although there are some multi-work items; and in some cases items which had previously been bound together have been separated and rebound individually (either by Ashburner himself, or a previous owner).

Although there is relatively little information available about John Ashburner, he was a prominent enough figure within medicine and spiritualism in the nineteenth century to be traceable as an individual; through both internet sources and printed books on the spiritualist movement.

To date it has not been possible to trace how his collection came to Cardiff, as this is not a location he is known to have resided in or have connections with; it can only be presumed that his collection was sold at auction after his death and was acquired at this point by Cardiff Public Library who were looking to build a drama collection.

Ashburner books 023

[1] See p. 16:  Harvey, A., Keelan, P., Pierce, K., & Price-Saunders, H. (2010) Cardiff Public Library sale collections: provenance report: A report produced for CyMAL by Cardiff University Library, January 2010. Cardiff: Cardiff University [unpublished].

[2] For Ashburner’s involvement in the Spiritualist movement see for example Owen (1989, 21): “In London, a loose grouping of middle-class intellectuals and professionals became the early propagators of a particular brand of spiritualism. These individuals included Dr. Ashburner, a Royal Physician and advocate of mesmerism…

[3] See post by Demarest (2013) http://ehbritten.blogspot.co.uk/2013/12/the-nature-of-thought-dr-john-ashburner.html?q=ashburner

Cardiff Rare Books and Music Lecture Series 2014-15

This year, Special Collections and Archives will host a number of talks by internationally-renowned academics as part of the Cardiff Rare Books and Music Lecture Series. All events are free, and open to all. Please contact scolar@cardiff.ac.uk to book a place for each lecture.

All lectures will be held in Special Collections and Archives at 5.15pm, with the exception of the 12 December lecture, which will be held in the Law Building at the slightly earlier time of 5pm. Please contact SamuelAM@cardiff.ac.uk to book a place for this lecture.

Posters in English and Welsh are provided below for download and distribution.

Download a pdf copy of this poster
RBMLS14-15ENG

Download a pdf copy of this poster
RBMLS14-15CYM

Rare Special Collections now digitized online.

Digitised versions of some of Cardiff University’s rare books and archives have been made available online through the institution’s new DigitalSearch web resource. DigitalSearch was launched during a special event in Special Collections and Archives (SCOLAR); during the launch event, colleagues from SCOLAR discussed the importance of DigitalSearch and the use and relevance of such online, website, and digitised resources to researchers and libraries alike.

 

Janet Peters, University Librarian, presenting DigitalSearch

Janet Peters, University Librarian, presenting DigitalSearch

DigitalSearch makes the text, images, photographs, audio, and video, of some of the University’s rare and specialist research library resources available to search and view online. Over 7,500 pages and images from items in three main collections (History of Medicine, Architecture, and Welsh Literature) have been digitised by the University’s Special Collections and Archives (SCOLAR) team and made available in DigitalSearch, and plans are in place to extend the range of these online resources. See DigitalSearch here -

http://digitalsearch.cf.ac.uk/home.html

Ranging from 19th century medical reports with statistics on the ‘plague’ in Cardiff, to modern architectural visions that were never completed, as well as Welsh literary ballad texts, along with the musical version being sung by a ballads singer – DigitalSearch supports a wide range of teaching and research fields in the University.

Pestle and Mortar from the 17th century.

Pestle and Mortar from the 17th century.

Janet Peters, Director of Cardiff University Libraries, said: “By making these rare and valuable resources available to the world via DigitalSearch, we hope to help inform future research. The unique images give an example of how digitised rare works can   add to their research value, often providing an unparalleled view into the past and richly illustrating how these works and images were used, and can now be re-used again!”.

 

 

 

Llenyddiaeth Plant / Children’s Literature SCOLAR + CUROP (Re-Blog)

Mae Dr Siwan Rosser, a’i myfyriwr Catrin, o Ysgol y Gymraeg, yn trafod manylion prosiect CUROP dros yr haf, a oedd yn seiliedig ar gasgliadau SCOLAR o lenyddiaeth plant dros y ddau gan mlynedd diwethaf…
“Diben y prosiect cylchgronau oedd creu cofnod manwl o sampl o gylchgronau plant cynnar a gwella’n gwybodaeth o gynnwys ac ansawdd y cylchgronau hyn”.

 
( Dwy Ganrif o Lenyddiaeth Plant” http://llenyddiaethplant.wordpress.com ) …

 
Dr Siwan Rosser and her student, Catrin, from the School of Welsh, discuss the details of their CUROP project over the summer, which was based on the SCOLAR collections of children’s literature over the last two centuries…
“The aim of the project was to create a detailed record of a sample early journals for children, and improve our knowledge of the contents and quality of these journals”.

Athraw i Blentyn,  1837

Athraw i Blentyn, 1837

Guest post: Volunteering in Special Collections and Archives

This guest post comes from Julie Ryan, who spent one month volunteering with us this summer, in order to gain the experience necessary to be accepted on a postgraduate vocational qualification in archives administration:

‘Owing to work commitments, and my own indecision, I only emailed SCOLAR about a month in advance of the particular 4-week period I was available to work. I was pleasantly surprised when Alison emailed me back with details of a project she would like some help on, and suggested meeting to discuss it further. It was really useful to know the details of what I would be doing in advance, as I could see how relevant to the course it would be, and also I felt more prepared for my first day. The project’s aim was to bring together all of the information about past students and put it into one resource. My first job was to transcribe records from the University’s matriculation book, working with an initial five year sample. These records also contained the name, address and occupation of the student’s parents, which was particularly interesting to see.

matbook

This was my first experience of transcribing, and being involved with making a secondary resource gave me a good insight into the problems that can occur with them. I saw how easy it was to read one word as another, or to not be able to read some things at all. Alison advised me to use the internet, for example Google maps, to double check that what I was transcribing made sense. In particular, the rural, Welsh place names could be difficult. Once these records had been transcribed, I then added the student number, which had been assigned at matriculation, to other data such as examination results, graduation, attendance. All of these documents were then imported into one spreadsheet. It is now possible to easily bring up all of the data about a particular student.

I really valued being able to be part of one project from start to finish, rather than doing small parts of a project and never getting the satisfaction of seeing it complete. I also appreciated the freedom I was given at this placement. I felt involved right from the beginning, and although Alison was always around if I needed her help, it was good to be given space to make my own choices.  Once I had completed the project, I then had a little time left, where I was able to see how the data I had made more accessible, could be used. I started mapping the addresses of students’ parents onto Zeemaps, and this allowed us to visualise where students originated from, and also whether there were multiple members of the same family going to the university.

matbook - occ

This placement has given me experience of transcribing and digitisation, which are directly relevant to the course I am going to do. It has also given me an insight in to the work that an archivist does, as I have been working from a desk in Alison’s office, and so been able to see what she does from day-to-day. I also had the added bonus of listening in on a talk about book binding, and spending a day looking through old photographs and picking some to be used for a social media campaign. This placement has been great preparation for an MA course in Archive Administration, but it has also been good fun to be part of interesting project, and experience what it would be like to be an archivist.’

 

Cymru ac Iwerddon / Wales and Ireland 1914-1918

 

Cymru ac Iwerddon 1914-18:  Delweddau o Ddau Ryfel

Wales and Ireland 1914-18:  Images from Two Wars

Arddangosfa gan / An exhibition by Katherine Wilkins

 

Ymreolaeth i Iwerddon / Home Rule for Ireland

Conradh na Ghaeilge oedd y mudiad a sefydlwyd i ymgyrchu dros iaith a diwylliant Iwerddon, o fewn y mudiad ymreolaeth. Roedd gan y mudiad gylchgrawn dwyieithog wythnosol, An Claidheamh Soluis, hynny yw ‘Gleddyf Goleuni’. Golygydd cynnar y papur oedd Padraig Pearse, arweinydd dylanwadol yng ngwrthryfel Iwerddon. Dosbarthwyd pamffledi’n hybu gwaith Conradh na Ghaeilge yn Nulyn, Llundain, ac ar draws Prydain.  Cytunwyd ar fesur ymreolaeth i Iwerddon gan San Steffan yn 1914, ond cafodd ei ohirio pan aeth Prydain i mewn i’r Rhyfel Mawr.

The Gaelic League was the cultural strand of the Irish Home Rule movement focusing on a revival of Irish culture and language. Its journal was An Claidheamh Soluis, or The Sword of Light, a weekly, bilingual newspaper. An early editor and contributor was Patrick Pearse who later became an influential leader of the Irish rebellion. Pamphlets promoting the study and advancement of Irish and the work of the Gaelic League were distributed in London, Dublin, and throughout Great Britain. At the beginning of 1914, the Irish Home Rule Bill appeared to pass through Parliament, but was later suspended as Great Britain entered the First World War.

An Claidheamh Soluis. Samain, 29, 1913

An Claidheamh Soluis. Samain, 29, 1913

Punch. 11 Feb 1914.

An Claidheamh Soluis. Samain, 29, 1913.

Gaelic League. Dhá adhbhar déag: Seo dhá adhbhar déag fá’r cóir do gach Éireannach an Ghaedhilg do bheith fá mhear aige. [Twelve Reasons Why Irishmen Should Know, Prize, and Cherish the Irish Language.] ca. 1900.

Ryan, W. P. The Work of the Gaelic League: Points for Irish People in Great Britain; How to Start and Conduct Branches. 1902.

 

Ymreolaeth i Gymru / Home Rule for Wales

Prif fudiad tu ôl i’r galwadau am ymreolaeth i Gymru oedd Cymru Fydd. Roedd yn fudiad diwylliannol i ddechrau, ond â chysylltiadau â’r Blaid Ryddfrydol, ac ymgyrchodd dros ymreolaeth i Gymru yng nghylchgrawn y mudiad, Young Wales (yn ddiweddarach Wales: a National Magazine). Er yn gefnogol yn y dechrau i Gymry Fydd, yn ddiweddarach symudodd David Lloyd George i ffwrdd o’r mudiad, a diflannodd y corff wedyn. Serch hyn, roedd digon o gefnogaeth yn 1914 i hybu Deddf Ddatgysylltu’r Eglwys, ond gohiriwyd hon ar ôl i Brydain ymuno yn y Rhyfel Mawr ym Mis Awst.

The driving force behind the Wales Home Rule movement was Cymru Fydd, or Young Wales. As a cultural organisation it was linked with the Liberal party in Wales, and campaigned for Welsh home rule via the journal for the organisation, Young Wales (later Wales: a National Magazine). Although an early advocate for Cymru Fydd, David Lloyd George later distanced himself, and the movement collapsed subsequently. Momentum appeared promising for Parliament’s approval of the Welsh Disestablishment Act of 1914, but by August it was suspended as Britain entered in the First World War.

Edwards, J. Hugh. (ed.) Wales: A National Magazine. July 1913

Edwards, J. Hugh. (ed.) Wales: A National Magazine. July 1913

Celt, A. Cymru Fydd Cymru Rydd: Or the National Movement in Wales. 1895.

Griffith, Gwilym O. The New Wales: Some Aspects of National Idealism: With a Plea for Welsh Home Rule. 1913

Fowell, R. W. and Dibdin, L. George. The Welsh Disestablishment Bill, 1909 with Explanation Notes and Compared with the Bill of 1895 and the Irish Disestablishment Act of 1869. 1909.

Downing, S. E. Disestablishment and Disendowment under the Welsh Church Act, 1914. 1915.

John, Edward T. Ymreolaeth Gyfunol: Safle A Hawliau Cymru: Manteision Senedd Gymreig. 1910.

Edwards, J. Hugh. (ed.) Wales: A National Magazine. July 1913.

John, Edward T. National Self-Government: How Wales Stands to Gain By It: Advantages of A Welsh Senate. 1910.

Edwards, J. Hugh. (ed.) Young Wales. March 1901.

 

Dau Ryfel / Two Wars

Gwirfoddolodd nifer yn y fyddin dan anogaeth David Lloyd George, a chonsgriptwyd nifer hefyd, i greu bataliwn ‘Cymreig’ (y 38ain), a alwyd yn fataliwn Lloyd George. Ym Mis Gorffennaf 1916 lladdwyd neu anafwyd tua 4,000 o Gymru ym Mrwydr Goed Mametz ger y Somme. Yn yr un cyfnod yn Iwerddon fe gododd Gwrthryfel y Pasg pan gipiwyd canol Dulyn, dim ond i filwyr Prydeinig eu gorchfygu dyddiau’n ddiweddarach. Cyhoeddwyd ffotograffau o ddigwyddiadau gydol y rhyfel gan y ‘War Illustrated’, yn cynnwys yma rhai o filwyr Cymru ac Iwerddon nid nepell o flaen y gad.

Whether conscripted or spurred by David Lloyd George’s rhetoric, a large number of Welshmen joined the 38th (Welsh) Division, also known as Lloyd George’s Division. In early July 1916 nearly 4,000 Welshmen were killed or wounded at the Battle of Mametz Wood on the Somme. Meanwhile, Ireland was recovering from the repercussions of the Easter Rising, when in April 1916, rebels seized Dublin, only to be quelled by British forces a few days later. The War Illustrated published photographs throughout the war, included here are some Welsh and Irish soldiers on the Western Front.

The War Illustrated: A Pictorial Record of the Conflict of the Nations. 29 July 1916

The War Illustrated: A Pictorial Record of the Conflict of the Nations. 29 July 1916

Muirhead Bone (the official war artist). The Western Front. 1917.

The Great War: The Standard History of the All-Europe Conflict. Vol. 7.

The War Illustrated: A Pictorial Record of the Conflict of the Nations. 29 July 1916.

 

Gwrthwynebwyr Cydwybodol / Conscientious Objectors

Er gwaethaf galwadau gan Kitchener i ddynion godi arfau, a’r ddeddf gonsgriptio hefyd, gwrthododd rhai ymuno â’r fyddin. Yng Nghymru cyhoeddwyd cryn nifer o bamffledi a chylchgronau heddychol, gan y rhai â daliadau crefyddol neu wleidyddol cryf. Gweithiodd Thomas Rees, pennaeth Coleg Bala-Bangor fel golygydd y cylchgrawn heddychol ‘Y Deyrnas’. Cafodd T.E.Nicholas ei garcharu am wrthod ymladd, ar sail heddychol a sosialaidd. Yn Iwerddon doedd fawr o awydd gan lawer i ymladd ar ran Prydain yn ei rhyfel tramor. Beirniadaeth hallt oedd ymateb y wasg Brydeinig i’r ‘shirkers’ honedig hyn.

Despite Kitchener’s call to arms and the newly passed Conscription Bill, some British refused to join the forces. In Wales, spurred by religious and political beliefs, a growing number wrote passionately for pacifism publishing pamphlets, books, and newspapers. Thomas Rees, principal at Bala-Bangor College and an objector on Christian principals, served as editor of Y Deyrnas. T. E. Nicholas, an out-spoken, Socialist pacifist was incarcerated for his objection to fighting. In Ireland, with rebellion surfacing, there was little interest in fighting Britain’s war overseas. The British press offered harsh criticism of so-called “shirkers”.

Punch. 12 June 1918

Punch. 12 June 1918

Nicholas, Thomas Evan. Dros Eich Gwlad. 1920.

Rees, Thomas. (ed.) Y Deyrnas. Chwefror 1917.

Punch. 16 June 1915.

Punch. 12 June 1918.

 

Llenyddiaeth / Literature

Mae Cymru ac Iwerddon ill dau yn dathlu eu traddodiadau llenyddol gan wobrwyo awduron a beirdd yn eu gwyliau diwylliannol cenedlaethol, yr Eisteddfod a’r Oireachtas. Yn yr Eisteddfod yn 1917 cafodd Hedd Wyn ei gadeirio, wythnosau ar ôl ei farwolaeth ar flaen y gad. Awdur poblogaidd ar y pryd oedd Arthur Machen, a nes ymlaen David Jones a oedd yn arlunydd hefyd, ac Edward Thomas o deulu Cymry Llundain (mae Prifysgol Caerdydd yn dal ei archif llenyddol enfawr). Yn Iwerddon adlewyrchiad o hyder cenedlaethol oedd gweithiau Padraig Pearse. Er yn pellhau ei hun oddi wrth Wrthryfel y Pasg, roedd W.B. Yeats yn dal yn wladgarwr wrth reddf; un o weithiau Yeats sydd yma, o gasgliad gweisg preifat Prifysgol Caerdydd, un o’r ddau gasgliad pwysicaf o’i fath ym Mhrydain.

Wales and Ireland both celebrate their individual literary traditions prizing authors and poets at their respective cultural festivals, the Eisteddfod and Oireachtas. At the 1917 Eisteddfod, ‘Hedd Wyn’ (Ellis Humphrey Evans) was awarded the highest honour posthumously, the Bardic Chair, having been killed on the Front only weeks earlier. Other popular Anglo-Welsh wartime authors included Arthur Machen, David Jones who was an equally accomplished artist, and Edward Thomas from a London-Welsh family (Cardiff holds an extensive archive of Edward Thomas materials.) In Ireland, the prolific writings of Patrick Pearse boosted a surge in Irish pride. An Irish Nationalist at heart, William Butler Yeats distanced himself from the events of the Easter Rising in 1916. One of Yeats’ works is shown from the Cardiff Private Presses collection, one of the two largest such collections in Britain.

Bettws-y-Coed, from Edward Thomas, Beautiful Wales. 1905.

Bettws-y-Coed, from Edward Thomas, Beautiful Wales. 1905.

Rhaglen Swyddogol Eisteddfod Frenhinol Genedlaethol Cymru. 1917.

Cofnodion a Chyfansoddiadau Eisteddfod Genedlaethol. 1917.

Wyn, Hedd. Cerddi’r Bugail: Cyfrol Goffa Hedd Wyn. 1918.

Thomas, Edward. Beautiful Wales. 1905.

Oireachtas. 1917.

Hyne, Anthony. David Jones: A Fusilier at the Front. 1995.

Pearse, Desmond Ryan (ed.). Collected Works of Padraic H. Pearse: Plays, Stories, Poems. 1917.

Yeats, William Butler. Responsibilities: Poems and a Play. The Cuala Press, 1914.

Machen, Arthur. Angel of Mons: The Bowman and Other Legends of the War. 1915.

 

Wedi’r Rhyfel / Post-War

Llwybrau gwahanol oedd etifeddiaeth y rhyfel i Gymru ac Iwerddon, er yn cwrdd weithiau, fel yn Fron-goch, lle’r oedd gwersyll i 2,000 o garcharorion Gwyddelig. Yn 1920 gwireddwyd Deddf Ymreolaeth Iwerddon nifer o amcanion y mudiad ymreolaeth, ond heb chwe sir y gogledd, ac felly yn tanio gwreichion yr IRA nes ymlaen. Yng Nghymru gwelodd ffrwyth yr ymgyrch i ddatgysylltu’r Eglwys, eto’n rhan o weledigaeth y mudiad ymreolaeth cynharach. Gwelwyd cefnogaeth eang i sefydlu Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd yng Nghymru. Dangosodd ôl y rhyfel mewn amryw o ffyrdd, dynion yn ceisio dychwelwyd i’w gwaith, a menywod dros 30 yn ennill y bleidlais.

The legacies of Wales and Ireland remained entwined as nearly 2,000 Irish rebels were held prisoner at Fron-Goch in North Wales. However, by 1920, the two nations embarked on separate paths. In 1920, The Government of Ireland Act, following the Home Rule demands, established a self governing Ireland, minus the six counties in the north, fanning the sparks that would ignite the IRA. While in Wales, the Welsh Disestablishment Bill was enacted, motivated in part by the Home Rule demands. Enthusiasm in Wales for organising future peace through the League of Nations increased. Post-war society reflected changing pressures as returning soldiers sought a return to normalcy and women aged 30 and older won the vote.

Ysbysty Tywysog Cymru i Forwyr a Milwyr Cymru a Sir Fynwy Wedi Colli Aelodau yn y Rhyfel. 1918.

Ebenezer, Lyn. Fron-Goch Camp 1916 and the Birth of the IRA. 2012.

O Mahony, Sean. Fron-Goch: University of Revolution. 1987.

The Easter Proclamation of the Irish Republic, 1916. 1960.

Garnett, Maxwell. Organising Peace: Being an Account of the League of Nations. 1928.

Ysbysty Tywysog Cymru i Forwyr a Milwyr Cymru a Sir Fynwy Wedi Colli Aelodau yn y Rhyfel. 1918.

League of Nations. How you Can Join the League of Nations Union and Help Forward the Most Practical Means of Securing World Peace.

Punch. 27 June 1918.

Should women wear trousers?

PP ShouldWomenWearTrousers 22

Special Collections and Archives’ latest exhibition is curated by Dr Becky Munford and Amber Jenkins, School of English, Communication and Philosophy. The exhibition forms part of Becky’s wider research project into trouser wearing among women in Britain, France and America since the French Revolution. Becky’s website, ‘Women in Trousers: A Visual Archive’, will be launched later this summer.

The exhibition will be on display until early September. Extracts are supplied below.

Should women wear trousers?

From Joan of Arc to George Sand, Mary Edwards Walker to Marlene Dietrich and Colette to Coco Chanel, the history of trouser-wearing women in the West is vexed by controversy. Linked with periods of social and political upheaval, women’s liberation, radical thought, aesthetic innovation and erotic freedom, women in trousers have historically represented an illegitimate assumption of male authority and power – of ‘wearing the trousers’ – that destabilises fixed notions of sexual difference and threatens the ideology of the separate spheres.

trousers1

‘Should Women Wear Trousers?’, Picture Post (1 November 1941), pp. 22-23.

‘Trousers For Women Are Not Necessarily Unattractive’, Punch (11 May 1927), p. 517.

Dress reform and ‘rational’ costume

The ‘bloomer costume’ was popularised by the American women’s rights activist and temperance advocate Amelia Bloomer in The Lily in 1851. Consisting of loose Turkish-style ‘trowsers’ worn under a short dress, the bloomer costume offered a ‘rational’ alternative to what Bloomer described as the ‘everlasting bondage’ of stays and petticoats. Although trousers had been worn by women in utopian socialist communities earlier in the century, bloomers represented the most radical challenge to fashionable dress because they wedded dress reform to feminist thought and political protest.

bloomerism

‘Woman’s Emancipation (Being a Letter addressed to Mr. Punch, with a Drawing, by a strong-minded American Woman)’, Punch (28 June 1851), p. 3.

‘Amelia Bloomer, Originator of the New Dress’, Illustrated London News (27 September 1851), p. 396 [first printed in The Lily (September 1851), p. 69].

‘The American Ladies’ New Costume’, Illustrated London News (19 July 1851), p. 85.

‘Bloomeriana. A Dream’, Punch (1851) pp. 204-205. Illustrated London News (19 July 1851), p. 85.  

Irrational Rationalists

The intrigue and anxiety provoked by the sight of women wearing trousers in public unfolded across the printed pages of the popular press on both sides of the Atlantic. The British weekly magazine Punch focused its satire on the figure of the ‘strong-minded woman’, whose appropriation of trousers – a visual symbol of male power and privilege – was construed as a direct assault on masculinity. In the early 1850s, the magazine routinely offered derisive images of bloomer-clad women adopting ‘masculine’ poses, smoking cigars, proposing to men and terrorising their ‘hen-pecked’ husbands.

sirens

‘Bloomerism!’, Punch (1851), p. 189.

‘The Angel in ‘The House;’ Or, the Result of Female Suffrage (A Troubled Dream of the Future)’, Punch (14 June 1884), p. 279.

‘Sirens in Small-Clothes’, Lady’s Pictorial (25 April 1891), p. 654.

Free-wheeling feminism

The bloomer costume reappeared with the bicycle craze of the 1890s, and once again became the object of Punch’s caricature. The New Woman on a bicycle not only represented new locomotive freedoms for women, but also the possibility of broader social, intellectual and political freedoms. In 1896, the American women’s suffrage campaigner Susan B. Anthony declared that bicycling had done ‘more to emancipate women than anything else in the world’.

bicycle

‘The Latest Craze in Paris: Lady Cyclists as Seen at Longchamps’, The Graphic (14 April 1894), front cover.

‘Fashions for November’, The Graphic (27 October 1894), p. 495.

‘The National Cycle Show’, The Graphic (15 December 1894), p. 682.

‘The Latest Parisian Craze’, The Graphic (14 April 1894), p. 420.

‘Bicycle Suit’, Punch (12 January 1895), p. 23.

‘A Girl Goes Cycling’, Picture Post (17 February 1940), pp. 42-43.

Wearing the trousers

The early decades of the twentieth century saw dramatic transformations in women’s dress to match the seismic changes taking place in the cultural, technological and political spheres. During the First and Second World Wars women adopted trousers to take up new modes of labour, working on the land, in munitions factories, as ship-builders, and as ambulance drivers and pilots, among other professions, preparing for and responding to ‘national emergencies’.

landgirl

‘Farmers! Protect Your Crops by Using “Binks’s Patent Futurist Scarecrow”’, Punch (17 July 1918), p. 33.

‘The Farmer’s Idea of the Landgirl’, Punch (13 March 1940), n.p.

‘Ambulance Drivers in their War-Time Kit’, Picture Post (13 May 1939), p. 16.

‘Girl Pilots’, Picture Post (22 October 1938), p. 47.

Fashioning the modern woman

In the 1920s and 1930s, trousers became a more acceptable part of women’s attire for sports and leisure activities. Sportswear influenced the masculinisation of women’s fashion, while pyjama suits, and even shorts, became a part of fashionable women’s summer wardrobes. That trousers played a vital role in fashioning the idea of ‘modern’ femininity was also reflected in the association between trouser-wearing and smoking – trousers featured prominently in cigarette advertising of the period to suggest the freedoms promised by smoking for the modern woman.

fashion

‘Trousers – And All That – For Women’, Punch (18 May 1931), n.p.

‘Play Suits for Summer’, Picture Post (1 April 1939), pp. 52-53.

‘Advertisement for Camels’, Harper’s Magazine (July 1930), back cover.

An Claidheamh Soluis : Cardiff Free Library and the Irish revival

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Among publications which were in the old Cardiff Free Library and have come to light recently are several original issues of An Claidheamh Soluis (“The sword of light”), the weekly newspaper of the Gaelic League. It was established in 1899, and had some distinguished editors – Eoin Mac Neill and Padraig Pearse being the first. Our copies come from the years 1912-1913, so they immediately predate some important years in both Irish and European history.  Many of the contributors and the people who feature in the newspaper went on to take part in the Easter Rising of 1916 and the subsequent events.

Most of the text is in Irish, with some articles and most of the advertisements being in English, and although the copies have suffered a little from the passage of time  they are still mostly in good condition. The newspaper was printed on good quality paper for its time, and is illustrated throughout with photographs and cartoons.  This picture of Edwardian ladies practising their shooting is actually of English women (with a suggestion that Irish women should follow their example):

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As with all old newspapers and periodicals the advertisements are another great window on a vanished world: there are many relating to tobacco, for instance (one even claims to be selling Irish-grown tobacco).  The Gaelic League was active in promoting Irish business and developed a trade mark which could be displayed to encourage support of home industries, especially Irish-speaking ones:  claideam3

Cardiff’s officialdom was not traditionally very positive about the Welsh language in the early 20th century – and indeed later – so it is amusing to note that the wrapper which arrived from Dublin fully addressed in Welsh was “corrected” to English by the Cardiff Post Office:claideam5 It is also interesting to note the broad interests of the public library at the time, including reaching out to make connections with other “Celtic” countries and to develop its own collections of material in the sister languages of Welsh.

This paper is a welcome addition to the collection of the Salisbury Library, and is an important source of Irish social history, despite being incomplete. We have a number of other, more recent, Irish language newspapers which will be added to our collection in the coming months.

Beautiful British Books: a South Wales Decorative and Fine Arts Society study day

Special Collections and Archives recently hosted a study day for the South Wales Decorative and Fine Arts Society, with Master Bookbinder Dominic Riley. It was a rare opportunity to learn about contemporary design bindings with one of the leading practitioners of the craft.

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The day began with Dominic’s talk ‘Design Matters’, in which he showed examples of his unique fine bindings, explaining how each design grew from a response to the text and illustrations of the printed book. After the talk, Dominic gave a demonstration of the rarely shown technique of gold tooling onto leather.

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Finally, the group was give a tour of the library, and had the opportunity to examine a range of examples of fine bindings and Private Press books from the Cardiff Rare Books collection.